Passport Photographs

Passport Photographs

Passport Photographs

Passport Photographs

Passport Photographs

Passport Photographs

Passport Photographs

Passport Photographs

Passport Photographs

Passport Photographs

Passport Photographs

Passport Photographs

Passport Photographs

Passport Photographs

Passport Photographs

Passport Photographs

Braceros

This man was one of the many guest workers who came to the U. S. within the framework of the Bracero Program. He was photographed for his passport. "Bracero" was a guest worker program between Mexico and the United States between 1942 and 1964 (“bracero” means manual laborer). It was initiated during World War II, due to the increasing demand in manual labor. It grew out of a series of bi-lateral agreements between the two states that allowed millions of Mexican men to come to the United States to work on, short-term, primarily agricultural labor contracts. During those 22 years, 4.6 million contracts were signed, with many individuals returning several times on different contracts, making it the largest U.S. contract labor program. Most of the braceros were skilled farm laborers. During the first five years of the program, Texas farmers chose not to participate in the restrictive accord. However, approximately 300,000 Mexican workers came to the U.S. annually. This abundant supply of labor finally enticed Texans to participate fully in the program. By the end of the 1950s, Texas was receiving large numbers of braceros. In the El Paso region, as in many regions, the Bracero program contributed significantly to the growth of the agricultural economy. Huge numbers of candidates arrived by train to the northern border. Ciudad Juárez became a substantial gathering point for the agricultural labor force. In El Paso, for example, Rio Vista was a farm that was transformed into an Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) reception center where the processing of braceros took place. They had to undergo testing and medical examinations there. More than 80.000 braceros crossed through El Paso annually. Some of them never returned but stayed in the U.S. and were able to establish permanent residency or citizenship. Some stayed illegally after the expiration of their contract. The program was very controversial: In theory, the program protected the workers in regard to a minimum wage, adequate shelter, food, sanitation and insurance, but in practice, many of those rules were ignored. Often, Mexican and native workers suffered while growers benefited from plentiful, cheap, labor. Between the 1940s and mid-1950s, farm wages dropped sharply as a percentage of manufacturing wages, a result in part of the use of braceros and undocumented laborers who lacked full rights in American society. In the U.S., they led excluded lives, away from their family, and often experienced harassment, oppression and discrimination. Despite the tremendous difficulties some braceros faced, their jobs in the United States allowed them to help their loved ones during a period of great economic crisis in Mexico. Most workers, however, did not earn nearly as much money in the United States as they had expected. The Bracero Program ended in 1964, due to intense pressure from unions, the mechanization of the agricultural industry, and public awareness of inadequate working and living conditions. In recent years, questions over the payment of wages have become important issues, and have resulted in numerous protests in both Mexico and the United States.

Área: Mission Valley / Socorro

Fuente: C.L. Sonnichsen Special Collections, University of Texas at El Paso Library. Collection Name: Casasola Photograph Collection. Photo ID: PH041-09-00002.

Cargado por: UTEP Library Special Collections

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Braceros

Descripción de Imagen:Dos hombres braceros miran a la cámara detrás de un fondo en blanco. La imagen es de una fotografía escaneada en blanco y negro. El hombre de la izquierda lleva una camisa abotonada con un abrigo con cuellos hechos de un material diferente a su camisa. Tiene un bigote pequeño pero su expresión es hosca. Hay un segundo hombre a su derecha que usa solo un botón de color blanco claro, posiblemente en color blanco. Su expresión facial parece tener optimismo.

Área: Mission Valley / Socorro

Fuente: C.L. Sonnichsen Special Collections, University of Texas at El Paso Library. Collection Name: Casasola Photograph Collection. Photo ID: PH041-09-00007.

Cargado por: UTEP Library Special Collections

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Braceros

These men were two of the many guest workers who came to the U. S. within the framework of the Bracero Program. They were photographed for their passports. "Bracero" was a guest worker program between Mexico and the United States between 1942 and 1964 (“bracero” means manual laborer). It was initiated during World War II, due to the increasing demand in manual labor. It grew out of a series of bi-lateral agreements between the two states that allowed millions of Mexican men to come to the United States to work on, short-term, primarily agricultural labor contracts. During those 22 years, 4.6 million contracts were signed, with many individuals returning several times on different contracts, making it the largest U.S. contract labor program. Most of the braceros were skilled farm laborers. During the first five years of the program, Texas farmers chose not to participate in the restrictive accord. However, approximately 300,000 Mexican workers came to the U.S. annually. This abundant supply of labor finally enticed Texans to participate fully in the program. By the end of the 1950s, Texas was receiving large numbers of braceros. In the El Paso region, as in many regions, the Bracero program contributed significantly to the growth of the agricultural economy. Huge numbers of candidates arrived by train to the northern border. Ciudad Juárez became a substantial gathering point for the agricultural labor force. In El Paso, for example, Rio Vista was a farm that was transformed into an Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) reception center where the processing of braceros took place. They had to undergo testing and medical examinations there. More than 80.000 braceros crossed through El Paso annually. Some of them never returned but stayed in the U.S. and were able to establish permanent residency or citizenship. Some stayed illegally after the expiration of their contract. The program was very controversial: In theory, the program protected the workers in regard to a minimum wage, adequate shelter, food, sanitation and insurance, but in practice, many of those rules were ignored. Often, Mexican and native workers suffered while growers benefited from plentiful, cheap, labor. Between the 1940s and mid-1950s, farm wages dropped sharply as a percentage of manufacturing wages, a result in part of the use of braceros and undocumented laborers who lacked full rights in American society. In the U.S., they led excluded lives, away from their family, and often experienced harassment, oppression and discrimination. Despite the tremendous difficulties some braceros faced, their jobs in the United States allowed them to help their loved ones during a period of great economic crisis in Mexico. Most workers, however, did not earn nearly as much money in the United States as they had expected. The Bracero Program ended in 1964, due to intense pressure from unions, the mechanization of the agricultural industry, and public awareness of inadequate working and living conditions. In recent years, questions over the payment of wages have become important issues, and have resulted in numerous protests in both Mexico and the United States.

Área: Mission Valley / Socorro

Fuente: C.L. Sonnichsen Special Collections, University of Texas at El Paso Library. Collection Name: Casasola Photograph Collection. Photo ID: PH041-09-00012.

Cargado por: UTEP Library Special Collections

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Braceros

Image Description: imagen en blanco y negro de dos braceros sentados uno al lado del otro. El hombre de la izquierda lleva un suéter de jersey sobre un botón puntiagudo y con cuello. El hombre a su derecha lleva una camisa de cuello puntiagudo y una chaqueta de cuero. Su cabello es largo y peinado hacia arriba.

Área: Mission Valley / Socorro

Fuente: C.L. Sonnichsen Special Collections, University of Texas at El Paso Library. Collection Name: Casasola Photograph Collection. Photo ID: PH041-09-00011.

Cargado por: UTEP Library Special Collections

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Braceros

These men were two of the many guest workers who came to the U. S. within the framework of the Bracero Program. They were photographed for their passports. "Bracero" was a guest worker program between Mexico and the United States between 1942 and 1964 (“bracero” means manual laborer). It was initiated during World War II, due to the increasing demand in manual labor. It grew out of a series of bi-lateral agreements between the two states that allowed millions of Mexican men to come to the United States to work on, short-term, primarily agricultural labor contracts. During those 22 years, 4.6 million contracts were signed, with many individuals returning several times on different contracts, making it the largest U.S. contract labor program. Most of the braceros were skilled farm laborers. During the first five years of the program, Texas farmers chose not to participate in the restrictive accord. However, approximately 300,000 Mexican workers came to the U.S. annually. This abundant supply of labor finally enticed Texans to participate fully in the program. By the end of the 1950s, Texas was receiving large numbers of braceros. In the El Paso region, as in many regions, the Bracero program contributed significantly to the growth of the agricultural economy. Huge numbers of candidates arrived by train to the northern border. Ciudad Juárez became a substantial gathering point for the agricultural labor force. In El Paso, for example, Rio Vista was a farm that was transformed into an Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) reception center where the processing of braceros took place. They had to undergo testing and medical examinations there. More than 80.000 braceros crossed through El Paso annually. Some of them never returned but stayed in the U.S. and were able to establish permanent residency or citizenship. Some stayed illegally after the expiration of their contract. The program was very controversial: In theory, the program protected the workers in regard to a minimum wage, adequate shelter, food, sanitation and insurance, but in practice, many of those rules were ignored. Often, Mexican and native workers suffered while growers benefited from plentiful, cheap, labor. Between the 1940s and mid-1950s, farm wages dropped sharply as a percentage of manufacturing wages, a result in part of the use of braceros and undocumented laborers who lacked full rights in American society. In the U.S., they led excluded lives, away from their family, and often experienced harassment, oppression and discrimination. Despite the tremendous difficulties some braceros faced, their jobs in the United States allowed them to help their loved ones during a period of great economic crisis in Mexico. Most workers, however, did not earn nearly as much money in the United States as they had expected. The Bracero Program ended in 1964, due to intense pressure from unions, the mechanization of the agricultural industry, and public awareness of inadequate working and living conditions. In recent years, questions over the payment of wages have become important issues, and have resulted in numerous protests in both Mexico and the United States.

Área: Mission Valley / Socorro

Fuente: C.L. Sonnichsen Special Collections, University of Texas at El Paso Library. Collection Name: Casasola Photograph Collection. Photo ID: PH041-09-00006.

Cargado por: UTEP Library Special Collections

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Bracero



Descripción de imagen: Una fotografía escaneada en blanco y negro de un bracero detrás de un fondo blanco. Parece tener alrededor de 30 años. Mira directamente a la cámara con una sonrisa amable. Lleva una camisa abotonada con dos bolsillos que tienen dos botones y pantalones vaqueros. Se sienta con las manos en las piernas. Hay un tatuaje en su antebrazo derecho.

Área: Mission Valley / Socorro

Fuente: C.L. Sonnichsen Special Collections, University of Texas at El Paso Library. Collection Name: Casasola Photograph Collection. Photo ID: PH041-09-00015.

Cargado por: UTEP Library Special Collections

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Bracero



Descripción de imagen: Una fotografía escaneada en blanco y negro de un bracero detrás de un fondo blanco. Parece tener aproximadamente alrededor de 40 años o principios de los 50. Mira directamente a la cámara con una expresión seria. El hombre lleva una camisa abotonada y una chaqueta con cuello. Sus manos están dobladas en su regazo.

Área: Mission Valley / Socorro

Fuente: C.L. Sonnichsen Special Collections, University of Texas at El Paso Library. Collection Name: Casasola Photograph Collection. Photo ID: PH041-09-00021.

Cargado por: UTEP Library Special Collections

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Passport Photograph

The image was taken by the Casaola Photograph Studio. It is a passport picture, taken of an unknown person.

Área: Central / Downtown

Fuente: C.L. Sonnichsen Special Collections, University of Texas at El Paso Library. Collection Name: Casasola Photograph Collection. Photo ID: PH041-09-00024.

Cargado por: UTEP Library Special Collections

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Bracero

This man was one of the many guest workers who came to the U. S. within the framework of the Bracero Program. He was photographed for his passport. "Bracero" was a guest worker program between Mexico and the United States between 1942 and 1964 (“bracero” means manual laborer). It was initiated during World War II, due to the increasing demand in manual labor. It grew out of a series of bi-lateral agreements between the two states that allowed millions of Mexican men to come to the United States to work on, short-term, primarily agricultural labor contracts. During those 22 years, 4.6 million contracts were signed, with many individuals returning several times on different contracts, making it the largest U.S. contract labor program. Most of the braceros were skilled farm laborers. During the first five years of the program, Texas farmers chose not to participate in the restrictive accord. However, approximately 300,000 Mexican workers came to the U.S. annually. This abundant supply of labor finally enticed Texans to participate fully in the program. By the end of the 1950s, Texas was receiving large numbers of braceros. In the El Paso region, as in many regions, the Bracero program contributed significantly to the growth of the agricultural economy. Huge numbers of candidates arrived by train to the northern border. Ciudad Juárez became a substantial gathering point for the agricultural labor force. In El Paso, for example, Rio Vista was a farm that was transformed into an Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) reception center where the processing of braceros took place. They had to undergo testing and medical examinations there. More than 80.000 braceros crossed through El Paso annually. Some of them never returned but stayed in the U.S. and were able to establish permanent residency or citizenship. Some stayed illegally after the expiration of their contract. The program was very controversial: In theory, the program protected the workers in regard to a minimum wage, adequate shelter, food, sanitation and insurance, but in practice, many of those rules were ignored. Often, Mexican and native workers suffered while growers benefited from plentiful, cheap, labor. Between the 1940s and mid-1950s, farm wages dropped sharply as a percentage of manufacturing wages, a result in part of the use of braceros and undocumented laborers who lacked full rights in American society. In the U.S., they led excluded lives, away from their family, and often experienced harassment, oppression and discrimination. Despite the tremendous difficulties some braceros faced, their jobs in the United States allowed them to help their loved ones during a period of great economic crisis in Mexico. Most workers, however, did not earn nearly as much money in the United States as they had expected. The Bracero Program ended in 1964, due to intense pressure from unions, the mechanization of the agricultural industry, and public awareness of inadequate working and living conditions. In recent years, questions over the payment of wages have become important issues, and have resulted in numerous protests in both Mexico and the United States.

Área: Mission Valley / Socorro

Fuente: C.L. Sonnichsen Special Collections, University of Texas at El Paso Library. Collection Name: Casasola Photograph Collection. Photo ID: PH041-09-00023.

Cargado por: UTEP Library Special Collections

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Passport Photograph

The image was taken by the Casaola Photograph Studio. It is a passport picture, taken of an unknown person.

Área: Central / Downtown

Fuente: C.L. Sonnichsen Special Collections, University of Texas at El Paso Library. Collection Name: Casasola Photograph Collection. Photo ID: PH041-09-00027.

Cargado por: UTEP Library Special Collections

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Fotografía de Pasaporte

Esta imagen fue capturada por el Estudio de Fotografía Casasola. Es una foto de pasaporte, tomada de una persona desconocida.

Área: Central / Downtown

Fuente: C.L. Sonnichsen Special Collections, University of Texas at El Paso Library. Collection Name: Casasola Photograph Collection. Photo ID: PH041-09-00040.

Cargado por: UTEP Library Special Collections

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Passport Photograph

The image was taken by the Casaola Photograph Studio. It is a passport picture, taken of an unknown person.

Área: Central / Downtown

Fuente: C.L. Sonnichsen Special Collections, University of Texas at El Paso Library. Collection Name: Casasola Photograph Collection. Photo ID: PH041-09-00046.

Cargado por: UTEP Library Special Collections

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Passport Photograph

The image was taken by the Casaola Photograph Studio. It is a passport picture, taken of an unknown person.

Área: Central / Downtown

Fuente: C.L. Sonnichsen Special Collections, University of Texas at El Paso Library. Collection Name: Casasola Photograph Collection. Photo ID: PH041-09-00035.

Cargado por: UTEP Library Special Collections

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Passport Photograph

The image was taken by the Casaola Photograph Studio. It is a passport picture, taken of an unknown person.

Área: Central / Downtown

Fuente: C.L. Sonnichsen Special Collections, University of Texas at El Paso Library. Collection Name: Casasola Photograph Collection. Photo ID: PH041-09-00070.

Cargado por: UTEP Library Special Collections

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Passport Photograph

The image was taken by the Casaola Photograph Studio. It is a passport picture, taken of an unknown person.

Área: Central / Downtown

Fuente: C.L. Sonnichsen Special Collections, University of Texas at El Paso Library. Collection Name: Casasola Photograph Collection. Photo ID: PH041-09-00069.

Cargado por: UTEP Library Special Collections

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Passport Photograph

The image was taken by the Casaola Photograph Studio. It is a passport picture, taken of an unknown person.

Área: Central / Downtown

Fuente: C.L. Sonnichsen Special Collections, University of Texas at El Paso Library. Collection Name: Casasola Photograph Collection. Photo ID: PH041-09-00080.

Cargado por: UTEP Library Special Collections

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